Quantum Dots (QD) are three-dimensionally confined semiconductor materials that are smaller than about 10nm. Quantum dots have properties that differ from large samples including band gap which can be tuned. These properties create several applications for QD like solar cells, transistors and LED’s medical imaging quantum computing. Various synthesis procedures have been proposed and implemented including chemical synthesis and lithographic synthesis similar to that used in the semiconductor industry.
Quantum Dots emit light when excited, smaller dots emit high energy light. The wavelength of the emitted light can be controlled by controlling the size of the QD and as a result, they are able to tunethe wavelength of emitted light to a specific color.
Applications of Quantum Dots technology
Liquid crystal display backlighting: Inconventional LCDdisplays, the white light source from LED’s is used for backlighting. However, in the new generation LCD’s, the backlighting system consists of a blue LED and a QD filter. The filter contains green and red quantum dots which convert part of blue light into green and red. Because of narrow FWHM of resulting red, green and blue lights,it brings a wide range of the colorspectrum, leading to brighter and more contrast images.
Solar cells:QD solar cells are more efficient when compared to Silicon solar cell. Lead sulfide (Pbs) quantum dot is of particular interest in solar photovoltaic cell application. Pbs semiconductor material enables quantum size effect tuning over arrange of the broad solar spectrum.
Photodetectors: QD’s can be used in photodetectors for detecting both infrared and visible light. Photodetectors for infrared light find applications in night vision cameras, biomedical imaging, and quality and product inspection. The visible light photodetectors can be used in image sensors. An advantage of using QD’s is the ease of integration with Si electronics or with flexible organic substrates.
Supercomputing:Quantum computing has laid a path for a powerful supercomputer called “Quantum computer” that is faster and provides more memory than conventional technology. Quantum computers can store information using quantum bits or qubits. Qubits can exist in both ON and OFF state simultaneously.
As with any new technology, QD has its own challenges too. In order to distinctly utilize the quantum properties, it needs to be isolated appropriately as it is affected by the atmosphere. Another big challenge with this technology is the on-chip design, as it is hard to achieve with its limitations with environmental exposure.
Future of QD technology
QD technology will revolutionize the 21st century. Such technology will lead to expanded and improved computing application which will continuously advance improvements in the sciences.
Quantum revolution benefits highly developed countries or regions in the world that heavily invest in cutting-edge research.
Aravind Kamath – Security Analyst, IT Security Infrastructure, Texas Instruments India
Arunkumar Ramaswamy – Business Analyst, Engineering Solutions IT, Texas Instruments India
Prathap R – IT Security Manager, Texas Instruments India