Quantum computing is not a new word for many of us. It is a solution of Moore Law death. The classical computer is no more going to be the best solution for exponentially increasing technologies like Artificial Intelligence and Internet of things. The powerful computational device is a need for an hour to harness the technologies and Quantum computing is the answer for it. Quantum computing follows the law of quantum mechanics which deals with atoms and sub-atomic particles. Atoms do not follow the classical laws of physics which have opened up realms of atoms and sub-atomic particle inside them. Wave-particle duality concept distinguishes the quantum behavior more precisely. Wave-particle duality states the light and matter can show both the properties of a wave and a particle which is hard to believe under the classical physics laws.
The basic unit of classical computers functionality lies in transistors which work on the Binary digits that are 0 and 1 which corresponds OFF and ON or vice versa condition to them. The quantum computing which can perform task millions of times faster than classical computers relies on Qubits.
Reason to switch from Bit to Qubit
- A transistor can no more shrink, so to increase the computational power qubits is the solution.
- Complex information can be encoded with security.
- Quantum phenomenon allows us to perform tasks which are not possible for classical computers, as they can only perform basic computationally but as the level of complexity increases they fail.
Let us see how Bit is different from Qubit
Bit: A basic building block for classical computational Devices.
Qubit: Stands for Quantum Bits. It is a basic building for Quantum Computing and future quantum computers.
Bit: Bit has single binary value either “0” or “1” at a time.
Qubit: Qubit can represent both “0” and “1” simultaneously. The unique property of representing 0 and 1 at the same time is due to the properties of Superposition and Entanglement.
Property of Superposition: The property of superposition is responsible for the qubit nature of holding 0 and 1 simultaneously. With superposition property each qubit can be in a combination of 0 and 1, so it can take multiple states in-between till it denotes the output. In binary digit, two-bit give the output with two bit of information while in two Qubit, it gives the information in four bits .
Property of Entanglement: Due to the process of correlation, particles that have interacted at some point can retain that connection. Qubits that are separated by a distance will interact with each other due to the entanglement as long as they are isolated.
Quantum computing holds the future of electronics. To grow and harness the technologies the devices have to be prepared and the quantum computer is the answer. Although quantum computers are in the nascent stage, future is no far away.